One of the most important means of political influence of the WMC is the selection of information.
during the French bourgeois revolution.
At that time, a democratic bourgeois concept of freedom of the press was formulated, which was based on three main theses:
separating news from comments; openness of government information; lack of censorship.
Freedom of the press in modern conditions, probably, should be considered as freedom of activity of ZMK as the concept of the press in the XX-th century. has changed radically.
Thus, the freedom of the WMC is a vital condition not only for people to express their thoughts and aspirations. Without its implementation, there is no need to talk about building a civil society, guaranteeing the constitutionality of a democratic system.
There are two main doctrines of ZMK freedom:
Western European (based on the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen), North American (based on the American Bill of Rights).
These doctrines have become very modern, going from liberal maximalism to social responsibility. However, this process is still not over. Evidence of this are the problems of “paparazzi” and “oral gate” that were actively discussed by the public after the death of British Princess Diana and the scandalous trial of Clinton – M. Lewinsky.
Moreover, in the context of globalization, when leading news agencies and broadcasters are monopolized in the hands of a few TNCs, primarily American ones, the notion of WMC freedom becomes formal. Evidence of this is the coverage of NATO-led NATO aggression in Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Iraq, etc.
However, there is still the doctrine of “freedom of the press” – authoritarian, when the media can talk about what the government allows (communism, National Socialism, radical confessionalism). However, this is, of course, little combined with the word “freedom” in general
Mass media is an integral part of the mechanism of democracy, its values and regulations. It is the WMC that can help an individual go beyond his or her immediate life experience and join political, economic, and spiritual activities.
In order to guarantee the possibility of free information, it is necessary to limit the influence of the authorities on the WMC, to ensure control over their activities by society.
This can be done only on the basis of understanding the functions of the WMC:
informing citizens about the most important educational events for them and the authorities (complements the activities of special educational institutions – schools, colleges, technical schools, universities, academies); criticism and control, the implementation of which is based on public opinion and the law; articulation and integration, which promotes the unification and consolidation of public interests, is a condition for the formation of an influential opposition; mobilization, which encourages people to take certain political actions (or conscious inaction); innovation, which is manifested in the initiation of political change by posing important issues to the government and the public; formation of public opinion on key issues of public life; operational, which is to serve the WMC policy of certain parties, social movements, social groups.
As observed, the main of the information process are: receiving, selecting, interpreting, stages commenting and disseminating information.
One of the most important means of political influence of the WMC is the selection of information.
Of course, both the political sympathies of the owners and leaders of ZMK and the market criteria of information policy of the mass media work here.
We formulate the principles of selection of publications and programs:
Importance (real or imagined) for citizens – the threat of peace, terrorism, environmental security, disasters. Extraordinary. Extreme events – war, famine, crime – dominate the phenomena of everyday life. Hence the propensity of ZMK to negativism and sensations. Novelty of facts. Reports of the latest facts – economic achievements, unemployment, space projects, new political parties and initiatives – always attract attention. Political success. We are talking about the successes of countries, parties, leaders, election results, popularity ratings, the cult of stars – in politics, sports, culture. High social status. The higher the status of the source of information, the more chances he has to sound on the air or be published in the newspaper. Accordingly, people from the elite (especially the ruling) have a better chance of accessing the WMC
Mass communication is associated with activities based on the use of signs and symbols.
Ideologists, state and political symbols, rules of etiquette, sign language, road signs, etc. contain the information necessary for the socialization of the individual.
In today’s world, the role of the media is constantly growing. Now you will not surprise anyone by calling the media the fourth power (along with the legislature, executive and judiciary).
Thus, the media can be not only an important means of informing the population. Experience shows that WMCs are actively used by the authorities for political manipulation.
And for this purpose not only facts are falsified, true information is silenced, lies are spread, but also half-truth techniques, fragmentation in the necessary context of information are applied, labels are hung.
Indeed, for example, if a person is waging an armed struggle for the creation of an independent nation-state, he can be called a terrorist and a separatist, a partisan and a freedom fighter, depending on his political sympathies. If it is “our” then “spy” if “not drunk” then “spy” and so on.
There are also paradoxes. For example, communist propaganda in the USSR called the Central Rada of the Ukrainian People’s Republic “bourgeois” even though the Social Democrats had a majority in it. The problem was that they were Ukrainian Social Democrats. And in Russian social democracy, as is well known, democracy ended on the Ukrainian question.
At the heart of such approaches is the use of methods of social mythology, which is actively introduced into the public consciousness, primarily through the media.
For example, the basic myths of the communist system were as follows:
private property as the main source of social evil; the inevitability of the collapse of capitalism and the victory of communism; the leading role of the proletariat and its Communist Party; the only correct social doctrine is Marxism-Leninism. Where are these myths today? Do they dominate? The collapse of the so-called socialist camp showed “who is who.”
In the same way, not everything is fine in the Western world. And there is more to the liking not the rational understanding of politics, and the use of social myths.
Here, for example, the basic myths of the United States (according to Schiller):
about individual freedom and personal choice of citizens; on the neutrality of the most important political institutions – the president, congress, court, ZMK; about the invariably selfish nature of man, his aggression and consumption; about the absence of social or ethnic conflicts; on the pluralism of the WMC, etc ..
I am convinced that we will still witness the destruction of this mythological system (but this is a topic for a separate conversation).
Therefore, we note that the media by form of organization can be private, public and public:
private, when WMCs are privately (corporate) owned and financed by advertising and donation revenues (USA); state, when the WMCs belong to the state, are directly financed and controlled by it (former USSR, China, present-day France); social and legal, when ZMK are financed mainly by a special tax, have legal rights and writes lab report for you self-government bodies, but are generally controlled by public councils (television and radio in Germany), etc.
It is clear that there are no ideal forms of organization of WMC. Obviously, it is rational to have the optimal ratio of different forms depending on the characteristics of a particular country, of course, in combination with effective control over the activities of the WMC, carried out on a legal basis.
In most countries of the world there are special bodies of general control over the WMC, which monitor the implementation of ethical and legal norms adopted in this society.
In France, for example, such an organization is the High Council for Audiovisual Communications, which not only oversees public and private broadcasters but also issues them state licenses to broadcast.
In the United Kingdom, the general activities of television and radio are determined by the government and parliament, and ethics is monitored by a special self-monitoring commission.
In the United States, media regulation is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission.
In Ukraine, the issue of licensing and control over compliance with the conditions of television and radio broadcasting is handled by the National Council on Television and Radio Broadcasting, which is formed on a parity basis by the Verkhovna Rada and the President of Ukraine and approved by parliament.
Thus, the structure of the WMC in each country may be different. The main thing is that they all have equal rights and the information space is not overly monopolized. Only then will we be able to talk about the information power as a truly equal fourth power along with the legislative, executive and judicial.
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Global communication models and the infosphere: own media management. Abstract
The power of information is concentrated in the hands of a small number of people – owners of media empires, who allow themselves to “not notice” entire continents, regions and countries, or to cover the events that take place in them, from their ” bell tower “
During the last years of XX – early XXI century.